Mining Cost Service - Smelters | CostMine

Silver refining charges: These previously ranged from $0.30 to $0.40 per troy ounce of payable silver. However, with the rise in the silver price, smelters have increased this charge to $0.60 to $1.50 per troy ounce, depending on the smelter and quality of concentrate.

Extraction of Antimony - Element Antimony, Sb, Metalloid

The refined metal is then ladled out and cast as " star antimony," the surface of the cakes showing a well-defined crystal structure. A method has also been suggested for refining electrolytically using an electrolyte containing antimony trifluoride with about 100 grams of free sulphuric acid and 20 grams of free hydrofluoric acid per litre.

Silver processing |

Silver processing: Silver processing, preparation of the ore for use in various products. Silver has long been valued for its white metallic lustre, its ability to be readily worked, and its resistance to the corrosive effects of moisture and oxygen. The lustre of the pure metal is due to its electron configuration,

Improved Smelting and Refining Processes for Production of ...

Lower fuel consumption, reduced smelting costs and a higher-grade product have resulted. The reverberatory furnace for reduction of antimony oxide was also enlarged: refining at lower temperatures and continuous mechanical casting into ingots gave a high-grade regulus.

United States Antimony Corporation

The Company has proven experience in underground and open pit mining, flotation and gravimetric milling, crushing and screening, dry grinding, cyanide leaching, precious metal refining, pyro-metallurgy, and marketing. Operations include a smelter and a precious metal refinery in Montana, and a smelter and three mills in Mexico.

smelter and refinery antimony -

How lead is made - material, used, processing, … Lead is a dense, soft, low-melting metal. It is an important component of batteries, and about 75% of the world''s lead …

largest antimony smelting plant in us -

Antimony Refining (Primary) Companies in the ... by September 2015 50% of antimony production capacity in .small smelting plant for antimony ... USA Sunshine Antimony Mine is the largest antimony …

Precious Metals Smelters and Refiners in Arizona - Manta

20 · Precious Metals Smelters and Refiners in Arizona. Manta has 17 companies under Precious Metals Smelters and Refiners in Arizona ... Primary Smelting and Refining of Nonferrous Metals, Except Copper and Aluminum ... Antimony Refining (Primary) (1) Base Metal Smelters and Refiners (1) Beryllium Manufacturers (1) Cadmium Manufacturers (1) Gold ...

Secondary Lead Smelting - Trainex

Secondary Lead Smelting Objectives • Describe the basic smelting process terms: smelting, refining, and alloying ... Antimony Lead Selenium Cadmium Osmium Arsenic Mercury 1613 1210 1054 904 849 721 660 627 318 214 41 32 14 CrO 2/CrO 3 ... • Smelting furnaces and refining kettles are employed to

Process of smelting antimony ore -

The method of recovering antimony from antimony trioxide which comprises forming a crucible of a hot slag composed of sodium sulphate, sodium chloride and sodium carbonate, filling said crucible with -a mixture-of antimony trioxide and carbon, sealing the crucible with hot slag, then heating the crucible and its contents so that the ingredients ...

How to Remove Arsenic, Antimony & Bismuth from Copper

Removal of arsenic, antimony and bismuth from copper may take place in the smelting operations by scorification, volatilization, or, under special treatment, by processes of concentration. Owing to the great variety of materials that are treated in economical metallurgy, it is rarely possible to obtain exact weights from any particular operation.

Lead and Zinc Smelting - IFC

Lead and Zinc Smelting Industry Description and Practices Lead and zinc can be produced pyrometal-lurgically or hydrometallurgically, depending on the type of ore used as a charge. In the pyromet-allurgical process, ore concentrate containing lead, zinc, or both is fed, in some cases after sin-tering, into a primary smelter. Lead concentra-

Refining Primary Lead by Granulation–Leaching–Electrowinning

Depending on the nature of the concentrate, the bullion exiting the smelting furnace contains a particularly broad range of impurities. For example, smelters of complex concentrates may have iron, copper, nickel, cobalt, zinc, arsenic, antimony, tin, bismuth, selenium, tellurium, silver, and gold, as well as sulfur and oxygen.

Precious Metals Smelters and Refiners in California - Manta

40 · Precious Metals Smelters and Refiners in California. Manta has 46 companies under Precious Metals Smelters and Refiners in California ... Primary Smelting and Refining of Nonferrous Metals, Except Copper and Aluminum ... Antimony Refining (Primary) (2) Base Metal Smelters and Refiners (2) Beryllium Manufacturers (2) Gold Refining (Primary) (11 ...

Liberating Copper and Nickel: A True Story -

Nov 10, 2016· This results in a high circulating copper load in the integrated copper complex (smelter-refinery) and high working capital. Furthermore, copper refinery electrolyte contains high arsenic and antimony which under the right conditions can produce arsine and stibine gases, both of which are extremely toxic, when the copper is depleted to low ...

Antimony Smelting - Mineral Processing & Metallurgy

The history of the antimony industry of China dates back to 1897 when the Tai Shing Co. was formed, under contract with the Hunan Bureau of Mines, for the smelting of the ore to crude; and in 1908 the Wah Chang Mining & Smelting Co. was formed for the smelting and refining of …

CA2798302A1 - Process for recovering valuable metals from ...

The present invention provides a process for recovering valuable metals from precious metal smelting slag, comprising: smelting the precious metal smelting slag and a flux in a top-blown rotary furnace to produce a lead-bismuth alloy, wherein the precious metal smelting slag comprises Au, Ag, Bi and Pb; electrolyzing the lead-bismuth alloy at a current density ranging from 60 to 110 A/m2 to ...

Chemie der Erde - Massachusetts Institute of Technology

C.G. Anderson / Chemie der Erde 72 (2012) S4, 3–8 5 Table 3 Plant capacities of historic leading producers of refined antimony. Company Location Total capacity and products (Sb tonne/year) Hsikwangshan Mining Administration China 30,000 (metal, trioxide, pentoxide, sodium antimonate) Kadamjaisk Antimony Combine Kyrgystan 20,000 (metal, trioxide)

12.3 Primary Copper Smelting

A typical pyrometallurgical copper smelting process, as illustrated in Figure 12.3-1, includes 4 steps: roasting, smelting, concentrating, and fire refining. Ore concentration is roasted to reduce impurities, including sulfur, antimony, arsenic, and lead. The roasted product, calcine, serves as a dried and heated charge for the smelting furnace.

Selling Metal Concentrates: Payable Metal, Treatment ...

Sep 23, 2013· Concentrates are usually specific to particular smelters. Thus a lead smelter or a zinc smelter could not smelt a copper concentrate (the converse is also true). In fact any copper in a lead or zinc concentrate is generally problematic in the smelting/refining processes and would most likely incur a penalty charge (see more on penalties below).

Antimony process - American, Smelting Refining

The process for treating antimonial lead which comprises softening the lead, reducing and smelting the antimony slag therefrom to metal, removing tin and arsenic from said metal, concentrating same into a high antimony product and euitectic metal, treating the high antimony product in a fuming furnace thereby yielding antimony oxide, an ...

A Brief History of Antimony in China | Amspec

Shortly thereafter, Wah Chang constructed an antimony smelter in Changsha to produce antimony metal using low grade antimony ore. This smelter became one of 24 roasting furnaces and 19 reverberatory furnaces that made up Wah Change's first plant. This plant is viewed as the start of large scale antimony production in China.


The formation of metallic antimony occurred without any decomposition in the course of the direct reduction of sodium metaantimonate. The concentrate reduction smelting carried out in presence of a refining flux provided to obtain rough antimony of low impurities content. Keywords: antimony concentrate, reduction smelting, rough antimony.

MIT's accidental smelting discovery unlocks the potential ...

Nov 28, 2016· MIT's accidental smelting discovery unlocks the potential of antimony. Share. ... The traditional method of producing antimony metal is through heat smelting. However, researchers at MIT claim to have accidentally stumbled upon a new method of smelting using electrolysis rather than heat. ... Electrolysis, or electrolytic refining, is a ...

Mineral Commodity Profiles: Antimony - USGS

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Open-File Report 03-019 Mineral Commodity Profiles Antimony By W.C. Butterman and J.F. Carlin, Jr. 2004 This report is preliminary and has not been reviewed for conformity with U.S. Geological Survey

Smelter And Refinery Antimony -

Aug 28, 2013 Antimony smelting process generating the solid wastes and dust: . smelter and refinery antimony - aanchalngo. Sb2O3. Chat With Sales. Mining Cost Service - Smelters | CostMine. Also included is a guide to current charges and terms for smelting and refining of copper, lead, zinc . tellurium, tin, mercury, arsenic, antimony, and bismuth.

Antimony - Wikipedia

Antimony is a chemical element with the symbol Sb (from Latin: stibium) and atomic number 51. A lustrous gray metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite (Sb 2 S 3). Antimony compounds have been known since ancient times and were powdered for use as medicine and cosmetics, often known by the Arabic name, kohl.

Lead smelting - Wikipedia

The Roman lead smelting has led to evidence of global pollution. Greenland ice cores from 500 BCE to 300 CE show measurably elevated lead content in the atmosphere. In the USA there are 400 forgotten lead smelting firms that operated in the 1930s to 1960s and may have deposited dangerous levels of lead contamination in nearby soil.